Charles Masson, a British explorer in India stepped upon some mysteriously molted ruins and brick mounds in late 1820’s. It was the very first evidence of the lost city named “Harappa”. Some 30 years later, somewhere near 1856, a railway engineer found few more bricks which were carted even before continuing the railway construction. Then finally in 1920, archaeologist began to unveil the sites of Harappa and mysterious Mohenjodaro, which revealed the long forgotten history of Indus Valley civilization! The mysteries behind Mohenjodaro was finally being discovered. But what followed was a flood of puzzling and peculiar findings that still needs an answer.
Mysteries behind Mohenjodaro:
Situated on the banks of rivers that still flows through the area of Pakistan and India, the Indus Valley civilization is said to be larger than the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia combined together! This large civilization existed thousands years back, amazingly has an architecture that has amazed researchers profusely.
The oldest civilization:
Earlier it was believed that the Indus Valley Civilization is somewhat 5,500 years old, but a recent research by IIT Kharagpur and ASI suggest that the civilization is older than 8,000 years. And this research proves that it is the oldest civilization of the world.
The great bath of Mohenjodaro:
In Sindhi, Mohenjodaro means the “hill of the dead”. The bath located in the middle of the city, through its amazing structure suggest that the people of the era valued cleanliness. It is a watertight pool build on top of a dirt mound and is enclosed within the walls of finely baked bricks. Right behind the bath one can also witness small changing rooms with each having attached bathing area surrounding the Great bath.
An unsolved scripts:
One of the most mysterious part of Mohenjodaro is its sculptures. Partially drawn pictographic symbols and various human & animal motifs that even include a peculiar ‘unicorn’! These symbols are pictured on small steatite seals, terracotta tablets and on the metal. What script do these symbols make is still not answered and scientists are continually trying to find out what exactly it wanted to convey. These interesting and yet puzzling signs make the city even more mysterious.
The Town Planning:
The fascinating thing about the cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro is its well-planned streets, homes and an elaborate drainage system that hints that the people of this civilization were skilled planners who interestingly gave importance to water management. Many wells had also been located in several parts of the city and almost every house contains a clear bathing area, a toilet and a proper drainage system. Such planning to be imagined some 8000 years back is in itself quite mysterious.
The ‘massacre’ at Mohenjodaro:
Apart from having such lush history, fascinating ideas, around some 44 sprawled skeletons lie scattered on the streets and houses of Mohenjodaro gave a new unsolved question – what killed these individuals? And in order to find the answer of this question followed a series of research by numbers of researchers, explaining the cause of the massacre, however, none of them was proved right. Many researchers concluded that these people died of violence. The first theory that was put forward was that the city suffered excessive flooding’s and that these individuals died as a result of diseases such as cholera. And this theory concluded that the dead in this massacre was just the result of natural tragedy and nothing else. But soon the theory was debunked. A new theory came in the form of atomic explosion. A British Indian researcher, David Davenport, studied the evidence of at the site of the city clearly. In his book “Atomic Destruction in 2000 BC” suggest some different findings. It says that the objects found at the place seems to be fused and glassified by a heat as high as 1500°C followed by a sudden cooling. This theory seems to interest the professor Antonio Castellani who said, “It’s possible that what happened at Mohenjodaro was not a natural phenomenon”. However, this theory too was not able to influence other researchers. Many Indian scholars tried to connect the blast with Hindu Epic Mahabharata, which says that the Vrishnis and the Andhakas became consumed into ashes by a thunder caused by an iron bolt. But separating fact from the fiction, researchers even claimed that Mohenjodaro today would not have survived the nuclear blast. So this theory too found no recognition. In 1980’s a biological anthropologist K.A.R. Kennedy and colleagues conducted another research, but this time due to advent of new technologies they first studied the human remains. Through their research they disapproved the massacre theory as they found the dating of remains, which says some people have died long before than the other. They even said that there is a chance that the remains could even differ 1,000 years of time that some individuals died. Which directly translates that no single tragedy would have killed the 44 skeletons together. And in fact, they all would have died a very natural death.
But, even with this conclusion, people remain confused as why such a modern civilization do not have a proper bury system? The dead were almost seen tossed here and there. Another thing which mysteriously surround Mohenjodaro is, according to many scholars the city would have almost 40,000 people living in it- so why only 44 bodies? Where are rest of the inhabitants? No cemetery has been found near about the place till date! So where do these people go? It is almost like the people just vanished in the air! Be it one thing or another, the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa still remains in the depth of numerous unsolved questions.