Tuberculosis also known as TB is a fatal disease that had virally spread all over the world. TB is an infectious bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis which mostly affects the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body as well. According to World Health Organization (WHO) around 2.79 million cases of TB are reported almost every year which means a quarter of the world total TB cases and almost one third of the world population are infected by TB on a global network. There were an estimated 2.8 million new cases in India, and 0.48 million people died in India due to TB in 2015. Sushmita Samhita written around in 600 BC suggest TB can be treated through breast milk, various meats and alcohol. But gradually with time new treatment were introduced which are more compatible in every way. As the time passed, TB had become even more gravious and fatal than before. World Health Organization had claimed India to be highest TB burden country. This is because of several challenges which India has to overcome, which includes socio economic determinants, weak health system, sub optimal public private engagement and poor treatment. The causes of TB can be very simple to severe.
- Poverty and substance abuse- lack of medical treatment, substance abuse and tobacco consumption.
- Traveling to certain countries- Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Russia and Latin America.
- Work or living place- health care work, living or working in a residential care facility or living in a refugee camp of shelter.
There are basically three types of Tuberculosis- active TB, latent TB and military TB.
The symptoms of each can vary from cough, phlegm, chest pain, weakness, weight loss, fever, chills to sweating in night. Two types of available diagnosis are Tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). As TB is a contagious disease so the treatment of it is equally important. Unfortunately, each year almost 40% of patients loose the follow up for MDR-TB that is multi drug resistant TB which is an active form of TB. This is mainly because the treatment is very difficult and expensive. In developing countries like India, Bangladesh or Pakistan it is more expensive to treat one case of TB than GDP per capita of the country. India also led in cases of Multi-Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB). Nearly half of the world’s MDR-TB cases are in India which is 24 per cent. India had formed a model for international partnerships- India consortium which suggest foster research collaboration within India and internationally, with the aim of carrying out a range of basic and clinical research that can lead to clinically important bio markers, vaccines, drugs and diagnostics. India also aims to eliminate tuberculosis completely by 2025 which is a very less time, for it to happen the rate of decline of incidence of TB needs to be more than 10%–15% per year over next 8 years. Globally, TB rates are declining by just 2% every year, we need to fasten our pace because at this rate eliminating TB by 2030 which every country claims to achieve is quite a question. However, scientist are trying to develop more cheap and easy cure for TB.
According to me the best and effective way to eradicate TB is only through vaccination, it may take a long span of time but the result provided will be best to eliminate this disease forever. Apart from this people should be enough aware of the symptoms so that they could be diagnosed earlier and treated accordingly. Providing right medication at right time can do miracles. As we all know that prevention is better than cure, so it’s much better to take precautions. prevention includes using respirators or masks while visiting a affected person, visit doctors frequently, eat healthy and avoid using unhygienic products. The best way we all can fight against this disease is being aware about every pro and cons.